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Outcomes and Policy Research



Dr. Gatwood’s overarching focus is on improving medication adherence and health outcomes associated with chronic disease. His work approaches this from two distinct yet related methods: 1) identifying populations with poor medication use and determining the factors related to nonadherence using database analyses; and 2) developing and testing technology-focused behavioral interventions aimed at improving medication use and other health-related behaviors. While at UTHSC, this has included analyzing veterans’ antidiabetic medication use patterns for racial and regional variation in adherence and outcomes, testing the effectiveness of tailored text messages to improve diabetes self-care activities among underserved African American adults with diabetes, using real-time mobile monitoring to improve glaucoma medication adherence, determining the impact of clinical pharmacy services on medication use and short-term health outcomes, and, most recently, examining oral anticancer medication adherence and its initiation on adherence to other chronic disease medications.

Dr. Gatwood can be reached at or 615-532-3403.
Members and Collaborators

Dr. Csaba Kovesdy, UTHSC College of Medicine (Nephrology) and Memphis VA Medical Center

Dr. Jim Bailey, UTHSC College of Medicine (Internal Medicine)
  • Improving Self-Care Decisions of Medically Underserved African-Americans with Uncontrolled Diabetes: Effectiveness of Patient-Driven Text Messaging versus Health Coaching (PI: Jim Bailey; PCORI Project Program Award SC15-1503-28336)
  • The influence of race on medication adherence and health outcomes in veterans with diabetes (UTHSC iRISE KL2) 
  • Leveraging Real-Time Medication Use Monitoring to Improve Adherence in Adults With Glaucoma ( NCT03194828)
Selected Publications
  1. Gatwood J, Chisholm-Burns M, Davis R, Thomas F, Potukuchi P, Hung A, Kovesdy CP. Disparities in Initial Oral Antidiabetic Medication Adherence among Veterans with Incident Diabetes.  J Manag Care Spec Pharm (in press)
  2. Gatwood J, Johnson J, Jerkins B. Adherence to topical glaucoma medication: Comparing a new wireless device and self-reported measures. J Glaucoma (in press)
  3. Gatwood J, Hohmeier KC, Farr G, Eckel SF. A Comparison of Approaches to Student Pharmacist Business Planning in Pharmacy Practice Management. Am J Pharm Educ (epub ahead of print). Article ajpe6279
  4. Gatwood J, Gatwood K, Gabre E, Alexander M. Impact of clinical pharmacists in outpatient oncology practices: A review. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2017; 74(19): 1549-1557. 
  5. Gatwood J, Balkrishnan R, Erickson SR, An LC, Piette JD, Farris KB. The impact of tailored text messages on health beliefs and medication adherence in adults with diabetes: A randomized pilot study. Res Soc Adm Pharm 2016; 12(1): 130-140. PubMed PMID: 25980582.



Junling Wang, PhD, is a Professor in Health Outcomes and Policy Research at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Pharmacy. She received her PhD in Pharmaceutical Health Services Research from the University of Maryland in 2005. Dr. Wang has continuously concentrated on the following two research areas: (1) outcomes/economic evaluation of pharmaceutical products and services including medication therapy management; and (2) racial and ethnic disparities in the utilization of health services and prescription drugs. Her research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Institute on Aging, Pharmacy Quality Alliance, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Foundation, American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Pfizer Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Company, and the State of Tennessee. Dr. Wang has published over 50 research articles in peer-reviewed journals. Her work has been cited by the Federal government as reasons for federal policy reform for the Medicare eligibility criteria for medication therapy management services. She has also received recognition for her research including the Nobuo Meade International Research Award and an Honorable Mention for Betty J. Cleckley Minority Issues Research Award from the American Public Health Association (APHA) Aging and Public Health Section. Dr. Wang’s leadership roles have included the APHA Aging and Public Health Section Program Chair, Membership Chair, governing councilor, and Nominations Committee.
Lab Personnel
Research Assistant: Yanru Qiao, MS
  • “Reducing racial/ethnic disparities in Alzheimer’s-Type dementia with MTM services.” Source: NIA/NIH. 08/2020-12/2021. $380,000. Role: Principal Investigator. 


    “Equity and Economic Effects of MTM Services.” Source: NIA/NIH. 02/2019-12/2022. $1,405,107. Role: Principal Investigator. 


  • “Finding Solutions for Disparities Associated with Star Ratings.” Source: NIA/NIH. 09/2018-06/2023. $1,672,000. Role: Principal Investigator. 


    “Outcomes of cumulative medication review for Medicare medication therapy management services.” Source: Pharmacy Quality Alliance. 09/2019-05/2010. $1,000. Role: Principal Investigator. 


    “Finding Effective and Equitable MTM Eligibility Criteria.” Source: NIA/NIH. 08/2015-04/2019. $987,562. Role: Principal Investigator. 

Selected Publications

Current and recent publications for past five years (2017-2022)

1. Tsang CCS, Browning J, Todor L, Dougherty S, Hohmeier K, Li M, Borja-Hart N, Hines L, Wang J. Factors associated with medication nonadherence among Medicare low-income subsidy beneficiaries with diabetes, hypertension, and/or heart failure. Journal of Managed Care and Specialty Pharmacy. 2021;27(8):971-981. doi: 10.18553/jmcp.2021.27.8.971. 

2. Browning J, Tsang CCS, Wan JY, Chisholm-Burns MA, Dagogo-Jack S, Cushman WC, Dong X, Wang J. Racial and ethnic disparities associated with the measure for drug-drug interactions among Medicare beneficiaries. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association (2003). 2021;S1544-3191(21)00364-2. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2021.08.023. [Epub ahead of print]  

3. Qiao Y, Steve Tsang CC, Hohmeier KC, Dougherty S, Hines L, Chiyaka ET, Wang J. Association between medication adherence and healthcare costs among patients receiving the low-income subsidy.Value in Health. 2020;23(9):1210-1217.  

4. Li M, Schulz R, Chisholm-Burns M, Wang J, Lu ZK. Racial/ethnic and gender disparities in the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and blood transfusions: cancer management under Medicare’s reimbursement policy. Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy. 2020;26(11):1477-1486. 

5. Spivey CA, Griffith J, Kaplan C, Postlethwaite A, Ganguli A, Wang J. Retrospective analysis of the impact of adalimumab initiation on corticosteroid utilization and medical costs among biologic-naïve patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology & Therapy. 2019 Nov 18. doi: 10.1007/s40744-019-00184-5. [Epub ahead of print] 

6. Spivey CA, Qiao Y, Wang J, Shih YT, Wan JY, Dagogo-Jack S, Cushman WC, Hines LE, Chisholm-Burns MA. Comparative effectiveness of medication therapy management eligibility criteria across racial/ethnic groups. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2019;67(3):581-587. 

7. Qiao Y, Spivey CA, Wang J, Shih YT, Wan JY, Kuhle J, Dagogo-Jack S, Cushman WC, Chisholm-Burns MA. Higher predictive value positive for MMA than ACA MTM eligibility criteria among racial and ethnic minorities: An Observational Study. Inquiry. 2018;55:46958018795749. doi: 10.1177/0046958018795749. 

8. Spivey CA, Wang J, Qiao Y, Shih YT, Wan JY, Kuhle J, Dagogo-Jack S, Cushman WC, Chisholm-Burns M. Racial and ethnic disparities in meeting MTM eligibility criteria based on Star Ratings compared with the Medicare Modernization Act. Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy. 2018;24(2):97-107. 

9. Spivey CA, Griffith J, Kaplan C, Postlethwaite A, Ganguli A, Wang J. A Retrospective Analysis of Corticosteroid Utilization Before Initiation of Biologic DMARDs Among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in the United States. Rheumatology & Therapy. 2017 Dec 4. doi: 10.1007/s40744-017-0089-8. [Epub ahead of print] 

10. Lu D, Qiao Y, Brown NE, Wang J. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination among adults with chronic medical conditions vary by age in the United States. PLoS One. 2017 Jan 12;12(1):e0169679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169679. 

Nov 22, 2023