The Division performs all flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopies at Le Bonheur Children's Hospital and at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital (average 200 procedures per year) for airway evaluation of children. During these procedures, bronchoalveolar lavage and in selected patients, transbronchial amd and mucosal biopsies are performed for diagnosis as well as to relieve atelectasis. In collaboration with the pediatric critical care and anesthesia staff, we also perform intubation of the difficult airway. All bronchoscopies are performed in the operating room or in the pediatric critical care units at the respective hospitals under conscious or general anesthesia to maximize safety for the patients. Patients who may need rigid bronchoscopy or other surgical and endoscopic procedures for complex airway and aerodigestive disorders are done in consultation and collaboration with colleagues in pediatric surgery, pediatric otolaryngology, and pediatric gastroenterology.